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New DSS Manuscript Fragments Found

Posted: Wed Mar 17, 2021 5:14 pm
by S_Walch
As has been reported at a few media outlets today, IAA have announced they've found some more fragments of the Nahal Hever Greek Minor Prophets scroll, along with other fascinating finds: ... of-horror/

Someone found and posted a good image of the fragment containing Zechariah 8:16-17 here.

I did give a preliminary transcription over at the ETC blog comments, but now with a few of the fragments re-arranged (as seen on my edited image here), I give the following updated transcription:

ου]ς ποιη[σετε λαλειτε αλη
θειαν ανηρ [προς τον πλησι
ον α[υ]του αλ[ηθειαν και κρι
μα ει[ρη]νι[κ]ον κρ[ινατε εν
ταις πυλαι?ε?νς [και
ανηρ τη[ν] κα[κιαν του πλη
σιον αυτου μ[η λογιζεσθε
εν ταις κα[ρδιαις υμων και
ορκον [ψευ]δη [μη αγαπατε
οτ[ι ταυτ]α παν[τα ε
γω εμιση]σα λεγε[ι יהוה

Variants from Swete LXX:

εκαστος ] ανηρ
πυλαις υμων ] πυλαι?ε?νς (some undeciphered letters here)

εκαστος ] ανηρ
διοτι ] οτι (not enough space for δι on previous line, IMHO)
εμισησα ] εγω εμισησα (space calls for some sort of addition; pronoun makes sense here)

This new fragment would come from the column prior to the following larger fragment from the initial DSS finds: ... e/B-370936

Re: New DSS Manuscript Fragments Found

Posted: Fri Mar 19, 2021 8:03 am
by Kenneth Greifer
For people who don't know Greek, is there anything important in these new fragments?

Re: New DSS Manuscript Fragments Found

Posted: Fri Mar 19, 2021 10:07 am
by S_Walch
Hi Kenneth,

Nothing major in this Zechariah fragment to be honest. Main things which have definitely changed from the "accepted" text of the LXX is in both 8:16 and 17, ἔκαστος ("each") is substituted with ἀνὴρ ("man") which more closely translates the underlying Hebrew אִישׁ.

Possible changes are διότι to ὄτι, both meaning "because", and the section where I've got ?'s above show there must've been a different Greek text here, however I've been unable to determine exactly what. There's nothing in the underlying Hebrew which points towards anything else, as the LXX is more or less accurately translating the Hebrew in these verses.

Zechariah 8:16-17 LXX
οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι οὓς ποιήσετε· λαλεῖτε ἀλήθειαν ἕκαστος πρὸς τὸν πλησίον αὐτοῦ, ἀλήθειαν καὶ κρίμα εἰρηνικὸν κρίνατε ἐν ταῖς πύλαις ὑμῶν, καὶ ἔκαστος τὴν κακίαν τοῦ πλησίον αὐτοῦ μὴ λογίζεσθε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν, καὶ ὅρκον ψευδῆ μὴ ἀγαπᾶτε· διότι ταῦτα πάντα ἐμίσησα, λέγει Κύριος Παντοκράτωρ.

These are the things which you must do: each one must speak truth towards his neighbour; truth and peaceful decisions you must judge in your gates, and each one must not reckon the evil of his neighbour in your hearts, and you must not love a false oath, because I despise all these things, says the Lord almighty.

Zechariah 8:16-17 Nahal Hever Greek Minor Prophets
ου]ς ποιη[σετε λαλειτε αλη]θειαν ανηρ [προς τον πλησι]ον α[υ]του αλ[ηθειαν και κρι]μα ει[ρη]νι[κ]ον κρ[ινατε εν] ταις πυλαι?ε?νς, [και] ανηρ τη[ν] κα[κιαν του πλη]σιον αυτου μ[η λογιζεσθε] εν ταις κα[ρδιαις υμων και] ορκον [ψευ]δη [μη αγαπατε] οτ[ι ταυτ]α παν[τα εγω εμιση]σα λεγε[ι יהוה]

...[whi]ch you m[ust do]: a man [must speak tr]uth [towards] his [neighb]our; t[ruth and] pe[a]ce[f]ul [decis]ions y[ou must judge in your] (gates?), [and] a man [must] n[ot reckon] th[e] ev[il of] his [neighb]our in [your] he[arts, and you must not love a fal]se oath, bec[ause] al[l these thing]s I [hat]e, say[s Yahweh]...

Zechariah 8:16-17 Masoretic Hebrew
אֵ֥לֶּה הַדְּבָרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר תַּֽעֲשׂ֑וּ דַּבְּר֤וּ אֱמֶת֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֔הוּ אֱמֶת֙ וּמִשְׁפַּ֣ט שָׁל֔וֹם שִׁפְט֖וּ בְּשַׁעֲרֵיכֶֽם׃
וְאִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רָעַ֣ת רֵעֵ֗הוּ אַֽל־תַּחְשְׁבוּ֙ בִּלְבַבְכֶ֔ם וּשְׁבֻ֥עַת שֶׁ֖קֶר אַֽל־תֶּאֱהָ֑בוּ כִּ֧י אֶת־כָּל־אֵ֛לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׂנֵ֖אתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה

These are the things which you must do: a man must speak truth with his neighbour; trustworthy and peaceful decisions you must judge within your gates, and a man must not devise evil in your hearts against his neighbour, and you must not love a false oath, because these are all things which I hate, says Yahweh.

Re: New DSS Manuscript Fragments Found

Posted: Mon Apr 19, 2021 12:05 am
by David Colo
I've been curious about the Nahum verses ever since I heard about this... I was wondering if it aligned with or diverged from the Hebrew. If the latter, can it shed any light on the (broken?) alphabetic acrostic?

Re: New DSS Manuscript Fragments Found

Posted: Mon Apr 19, 2021 2:23 pm
by S_Walch
Hi David,

Unfortunately I've not seen any images of the new Nahum fragments, so can't say much on those.

Nevertheless, usually the Nahal Hever Greek Minor Prophets does accord more with the MT Hebrew than the Old Greek/LXX does.

You'll want a copy of E. Tov's The Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible if you want to probe deeper, if you haven't already. :)