Genesis 14:13 - these were confederate with Abram.הם בעלי ברית־אברם
αὐτοὶ βουλαί ῥητοί Εὕρημα
This confirms the meaning of בעלי as βουλαί "counsel, of the elders or chiefs, a Senate"
" renders elsewhere.
Judges 9:4 - בית בעל ברית - "threescore and ten pieces of silver out of the house of Baalberith"
In this also mentions Abimelech (אבימלך) this same name appears in Genesis 20:2 alongside Abraham
as the King of Gerar.
אבימלך possible equates with εὔαρχος "governing well, one's first customer in the market", so its plausible that Judges 9:4 is describing a bank or treasure house governed by a counsel.
Similar language between Judges 9 and Genesis, Judges 9:6 mentions "the plain of the pillar that was in Shechem" (עם־אלון מצב אשר בשכם) and what is this "Pillar in Shechem", similar too Genesis 19:26 "Pillar of Salt" (נציב מלח), probably a natural formation. נציב means garrison in 1 chronicles 11:16 translated σύστεμα
and homologue of ἐπιστάτα "support, stand, chairman of βουλή and ἐκκλησία, keeper of Treasury".
2 Samuel 8:6, נצבים renders φρουρά "watch-guard, at Sparta, a body of men destined for service"
synonym of φύλακες and associate of πιστός, "in Persia, trusty councillors".
2 Samuel 8:8 - Betah, and from Berothai, cities of Hadadezer, here ברת is translated as ἐκλεκτός "picked out" mentioned once more in Ezekiel 47:16, a place near Damascus & Hamath, the word associated with Cypress trees or κυπάρισσοι or ῥητός and בטח (Betah) is the same word as πιστός "trust" transliterated as Μασβακ.
הדדעזר (Hadadezer, Αδρααζαρ) King of Zobah, In 2 Samuel 23:36, the place name is translated
as δύναμις "forces of war" and צבה is a form of נצב or σαμεῖα "body of troops" or as מצבה/σύστημα
also meaning "body of soldiers, band of partisans, guild or σέβασμα.
The name הדדעזר (Hadadezer, Αδρααζαρ) is very similar too כדרלעמר "Chedorlaomer"
note that the Sept reads הדדעזר as הדרעזר and ה can be a guttural. כדר/הדר. The name
is prefixed "עזר" (Ezra) associate of σωτήρ and σώζω .
הדד, הדר, כדר
- αἰδώς, αἰδεστός "Revere"
- ἀνήρ, ἁνδρός "Man"
1. ἅμιλλα, ἁμιλλάομαι "conflict'
2. ἄμαλλα "bundle of ears of corn, sheaf", ἀμάω "reap corn".
3. ἄγαμος "unmarried, widow
4. Κιμμέριοι "Cimmerian" (Gamir, Gimirri, Gomara, Gyumri)
Defeated by Assyrian forces under Sargon II in 705, They reached the height of their power in 652 after taking Sardis
, the capital of Lydia; however an invasion of Assyrian-controlled Anshan was thwarted. Soon after 619, Alyattes
of Lydia defeated them. There are no further mentions of them in historical sources, but it is likely that they settled in Cappadocia.)
During the reign of Esarhaddon of Assyria (r. 681–669 BC), they attacked the Assyrian colonies Cilicia and Tabal under their new ruler Teushpa. Esarhaddon defeated them near Hubushna (Hupisna), and they also met defeat at the hands of his successor Ashurbanipal.
A people named Kimmerioi is described in Homer's Odyssey 11.14 (c. late 8th century BC), as living beyond the Oceanus, in a land of fog and darkness, at the edge of the world and the entrance of Hades, According to Herodotus (c. 440 BC), the Cimmerians had been expelled from their homeland between the Tyras (Dniester) and Tanais (Don) rivers by the Scythians
The name Esarhaddon a possible reversal of Hadadezer that often happened in Hebrew, named in
Bible as אסר־חדן (Ασορδαν, Ασαραδδων) the son of Sennacherib (סנחריב, Σενναχηριμ).
I also paralleled Sodom & Gomorrah with Xanthos & Scamander, ס־מד־ר/Σκάμάνδρος, ס־דם/Ξάνθών.
Xanthos & Scamander are also close too Sardis, settled by the Cimmerian, סדם & עמרה could then
stand for ἀστοί σκύθου καἴ Κιμμέριοι, Gaza also means ἄστυ "town" and Sidon means ξανθός and also
near there is Miletus (מלוא?).
As soon as Gyges came to the throne, he too, like others, led an army into the lands of Miletus and Smyrna; and he took the city of Colophon. But as he did nothing else great in his reign of thirty-eight years, I shall say no more of him, and shall speak instead of Ardys son of Gyges, who succeeded him. He took Priene and invaded the country of Miletus; and it was while he was monarch of Sardis that the Cimmerians, driven from their homes by the nomad Scythians, came into Asia, and took Sardis, all but the acropolis.
These names, "Ardys son of Gyges" (Ἄρδυος δὲ τοῦ Γύγεω) in Herodotus are suspiciously biblical
and Ardys (Ἄρδυος ) similar too הדר (Hadar) and אדר (Adar) and Hadarezer (Αδρααζαρ, הדדעזר) and
an appearance in Gen 36:39.
- Ezekiel 38:3 Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal (גוג/Γωγ)
- Deu 1:4 - Og the king of Bashan, which dwelt at Astaroth in Edrei (עוג/Ωγ
The name of the Lydian king Γύγης is attested many times in Greek transmission. In addition, the annals of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, refer several times to Gu(g)gu, king of Luddi, to be identified with Gyges, king of the Lydians.
Ashurbanipal is the son of Esarhaddon, seems to be Asnappar (אסנפר , Ασενναφαρ)
and the name is similar too אסנה (Ασενα) and אסנת (Ασεννεθ) (Asenath) in Genesis 41:45. cf. ἀθανᾶ
Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnathpaaneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt.
On/אן - Ζῆν, ζᾶνα "Zeus" (Διόσπολις) (Diopolis, Diospolis)
- ἔφορος, φρουρός, τηρός "overseer, watcher"
- φαλακρός "bald-headed"
- αἰγυπτία "In Egyptian style" cf.
- πόσις, δεσπότης "Husband, despot"
- πρόσθιος, προκόμιον "forelock"
- ὕπτιοι "back"
צפנת פענח "Zaphnath paaneah"
- δαφνηφάγος "bay-eating, inspired"
- δαφνηφόρος "bearer of bays
- δαφνόκομος "laurel-crowned"
- Ψονθομφανηχ, Ψαμμήτιχος
- ψάμμα, ψάμμος "Sand" ( ἄμμος, ἄμαθος.)
Interesting that the name Psammetichus named Ψαμμήτιχος, his named prefixed Ψαμμή means "Sand".Genesis 41:49
Joseph gathered corn as the sand (ψάμμον) of the sea, very much, until he left numbering; for it was without number. " ψῆφος ἄμμου" (ψῆφος, ψᾶφος "counting") (Ιωσηφ?) -ψῆφ.
- ἀγορανόμος "clerk of the market, who regulated buying and selling
- ἀγόρασμα, ἀγοράσματα, ἀγοράζω " wares, merchandize (מצרים, משביר)
- σιτοβολών, πωλέω, βωλά
- Encouraged many Greek settlers to establish colonies in Egypt and serve in the Egyptian army. In particular, he settled some Greeks at Tahpanhes
- Necho also formed an Egyptian navy by recruiting displaced Ionian Greeks
7th century statue found in Kale (Tabae) mentioning Psamtik. The Ionian Greek inscription reads, "Amphimeos' son Pedon brought me from Egypt and gave as a votive; Psammetichos, the king of Egypt gave him a city for his virtue and a golden diadem for his virtue."
In the reign of Psammetichus, there were watchposts at Elephantine facing Ethiopia, at Daphnae of Pelusium facing Arabia and Assyria and at Marea facing LibyaJeremiah 44:1
The Jews which dwell in the land of Egypt, which dwell at Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, and at Noph
Psamtik I : 664–610 BCE
Esarhaddon : 681- 669 BCE
Ashurbanipal : 668 – 627 BCE
Gyges : 687 - 652 BCE
Ardys : 652– 603 BCE
Teispes : 675–640 BCE
Cyrus I : 625–600 BCE
Phraortes : 647–625 BCE