For discussions which focus upon specific words, their origin, meaning, relationship to other ANE languages.
Forum rules
Members will observe the rules for respectful discourse at all times!
Please sign all posts with your first and last (family) name.
Post Reply


Post by Saboi »

Nimrod is written Νεβρῶν (Nebrod) in the Septuagint and this resolves the meaning of נמרים (Namerim) "Leopards"
from λέον-παρδος "Spotted Lion". πάρδος (Pardos) "Spotted" also written βρόδον and the spots of the Leopard
have a rosette like pattern for the word also roots Rhode and Roses.

The Hebrew word for Spotted is ברד (Barod) H1261 and a Lion is called a ליש H3918 and when you put these words together
ברד ליש (BRD LIS) you get πάρδαλις (Pardalis), another word for Leopard.

The spots of the Leopard are described in Jeremiah 13:23 with the word חבר-ברתיו from ἁβρά βρόδον "pretty rosettes"
βρόδων : ברדים ( Gen 31:10)

Νεβρός means "Spotted Fawn", In Hebrew called עפרים (Oprim) * /Ν/εβρῶν
Songs 7:3 - two spotted twin fawns

ברד (Bered) appear in Gen 16:14 near Kadesh (Syria) and the word describes the waters of Meribah in Isaiah 15:6 and Jer 48:34 .

Sng 4:8
Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon: look from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir and Hermon, from the lions' dens, from the mountains of the leopards

The Leopard River (Barada) is a river that rises in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains ( Amana, Shenir and Hermon)
R.J. Furuli
Posts: 158
Joined: Sat Sep 28, 2013 10:51 am

Re: Nimrod

Post by R.J. Furuli »

Dear Lee,

It is not possible to know know the origin of the name Nimrod, or definitely connect it with a historical person. But your explanation of the name may be correct. In my book Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, and Persian Chronology Compared with the Chronology of the Bible —Volume 1 Persian Chronology and the Length of the Babylonian Exile of the Jews, pp. 51-53 I give the following explanation:

"Let us now look at a particular example where communication by help of the two different languages, Sumerian and Akkadian, can possibly help us solve a problem. One of the important persons in the first part of Genesis is Nimrod (Genesis 10:9, 10), the founder and first ruler of Babylon. No trace of a person with that name has ever been unearthed, and he is believed to be mythical by many. According to the belief expressed in Babylonian cuneiform tablets, the founder and ruler of Babylon was the god Marduk. At first glance, there is little similarity between the name “Marduk” and the name “Nimrod”; however, by help of the “rebus” system of Sumerian and Akkadian we can demonstrate a striking similarity! The name of Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, can be written in at least seven different ways in Akkadian. The most common form is to write it with the Sumerian ideograms AMAR.UD (the calf of the sun).

How then, were the sounds AMAR and UD transformed into “Marduk”? One possibility is that the Sumerian genitive marker .ak, which stands after the noun that owns something, is used. If that is the case, we could imagine the following scenario: The “a” of the .ak in AMAR.UD.ak was assimilated with the “u” of “UD” resulting in Then the second “u” fell away, and because the first “a” was not pronounced, the result would be “Marduk.” We cannot be certain that it happened this way, but it is a plausible explanation that accords with Akkadian phonology.

However, the older (Sumerian) pronunciation was, and if we remove the inflectional element .ak or .uk, we have the traditional writing AMAR.UD, which has four of the letters of “Nimrod,” namely m-r-u-d. In rabbinic writings the name “Nimrod” is viewed as the Hebrew Niphal participle of the verb marad “to rebel,” meaning “having rebelled/the rebel.” In that case, Nimrod originally was a designation rather than a proper name. There may be a small part of truth in this view. When foreign names are written in the Hebrew Bible, they are written according to the Hebrew stock of phonemes. If the name of the founder of Babylon was AMAR.UD, and this should be transformed into Hebrew, the writer could see the resemblance between this name and the word “the rebel.” By adding an “n” at the beginning of the word, thus indicationg that the word is a Niphal participle, most of the Sumerian elements were retained and at the same time it was evident that this person was a rebel. Etymology is tricky business, but the description above is a possibility, illustrating how the relationship between Akkadian Sumerian, and Hebrew can work."

The strength of this explanation is:

1) According to Genesis 10:9-10 Nimrod lived at a time when Sumerian and Akkadian were spoken.

2) According to the same scripture Nimrod was the founder of Babel.

3) According to the Babylonian view, the god Marduk was the founder of Babel.

4) The Sumerian ideograms representing the Akkadian name Marduk is AMAR.UD.

5) The sounds of AMAAR.UD are close to the sounds of Nimrod, and using the Nifal participle of mrd identifies Nimrod as a rebel, which is the description of him in Genesis.

Best regards,

Rolf J. Furuli

Re: Nimrod

Post by Saboi »

There is no Babylon, Akkadian or Sumerian in the narrative of Nimrod and only describes the
geography of the Levant, in this case, the Northern areas.

Gen 10:8 - Cush begat Nimrod

Cush means burned, cognate of κάος, כויה , כוה and this word commonly
translates Αἰθιοπία (Ethiopia) from αἶθος "Burning Heat", the Father of Cush
is Ham is similar too καῦμα "Burning Heat" or καύματος " sun-heat".

These words are not describing the hot-climate of the region but describing the winter torrents of the Lebanese mountains that are called χειμάρρους "Winter-Flowing" and the poetry is explained in Job.

Job 6:15
The stream of brooks (χειμάρρους )
Blackish (Qadar) by reason of the ice
They wax warm, they vanish: when it is hot (חמ) they are consumed

Job 24:19
Drought and heat(חם) consume the snow waters

Isaiah 55:10
Rain came down, the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither but watereth the earth

Isaiah 30:30
stream of hoarfrost , doth kindle it.

Nahum 1:5
Hills melt and the earth is burned ... 1:8 overrunning flood

ברד (Barod) "Hail"

Psa 105:32
He gave them hail (Barod) for rain, and flaming fire in their land
* ברד (BRD) : βροχάς/βρέχω "Rain" or βρ. πῦρ "to rain fire"

*Rain burns snow

Re: Nimrod

Post by Saboi »

Cepheus - King of Aethiopia ( Greek-Phoenician Mythology)

This character is described in Pausanias as the King of Joppa (not to be confused with Jaffa)
rather then Aethiopia/Cush.

Pausanias 4.35
Red water, in color like blood, is found in the land of the Hebrews near the city of Joppa . The water is close to the sea, and the account which the natives give of the spring is that Perseus, after destroying the sea-monster, to which the daughter of Cepheus was exposed, washed off the blood in the spring. (Jonah 1-2)

The Prefix of the word Αἰθιοπία is the word יפו (Yafo) and Αἰθιοπία is something like אשת יפו
or perhaps from ἄστυ ιοππια "Town of Joppa" . "Land of Hebrew" in Pausanias is written "Ἑβραίων ἡ γῆ" and the word Ἑβραίω ( Ἑβραίιμ) referring too the region around River Abraham that turns Red near Byblos (בבל).

This explains why ancient synagogues, Chorazin and Zippori are decorated with the symbols
of Medusa ( מדשה/מטה). Moses lifts the head of Medusa and turns the river into blood.
Isaac Fried
Posts: 1715
Joined: Sat Sep 28, 2013 8:32 pm

Re: Nimrod

Post by Isaac Fried »

And not to forget the name מָרְדֳּכַי MARDKAY of Esther 2:5
‎אִישׁ יְהוּדִי הָיָה בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה וּשְׁמוֹ מָרְדֳּכַי בֶּן יָאִיר בֶּן שִׁמְעִי בֶּן קִישׁ אִישׁ יְמִינִי
with מָרְדֳּכַי ‫=‬ מר‫-‬עד‫-‬חי
The נִי of נימרוֹד is possibly the personal pronoun אני ANIY.

Isaac Fried, Boston University
Isaac Fried
Posts: 1715
Joined: Sat Sep 28, 2013 8:32 pm

Re: Nimrod

Post by Isaac Fried »

The river name Barada is possibly a variant of פרת Prath, possibly further related to פרץ PRAC, 'gushing'.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Re: Nimrod

Post by Saboi »

I primarily identify Nimrod with Bacchus (בכה/בקע) who is depicted wearing Leopard Skin
or that of a Fawn (Νεβρός).

Genesis 11:2 בקעה בארץ שנער "Beqaa in the Land of Shinar"

שנער is a variant of שניר.

Deuteronomy 3:9
Sidonians call Hermon, Sirion and the Amorites call it Shenir
Φοίνικες - Αερμων - Σανιωρ - Σανιρ (LXX)

Ezekiel 27:5
They have made all thy ship boards of fir trees of Senir: they have taken cedars from Lebanon to make masts for thee

שריון/Σύριων (Syria ) can also mean Cuirass or θωρακεῖον, this word similar too τράγος (Tragos), ἔθειρα and Σάτυρος (Satyr), these words describe Esau(δασύς).
Isaac Fried
Posts: 1715
Joined: Sat Sep 28, 2013 8:32 pm

Re: Nimrod

Post by Isaac Fried »

שניר is possibly שן-הר

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Re: Nimrod

Post by Saboi »

Isaac Fried wrote:שניר is possibly שן-הר

Isaac Fried, Boston University
שנ יר
- χιών ὅρος "Snow Mountain"
- φοινός ὅρος "Red Mountain" -

Esau is described RED and he is the name-sake of a mountain called שעיר (Satyr)
and this the namesake for Syria (שרין ) and Israel (ישראל ) from Συρία Κοίλη.

Abraham River ( Red Mountain)
According to the myth, Adonis's blood flowed in the river, making the water reddish, in reality the river flows red each February due to the volume of soil washed off the mountains by heavy winter rains
Post Reply