Verbal prefixes

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Saboi

Verbal prefixes

Postby Saboi » Wed Aug 14, 2019 6:47 pm

Verbal prefixes are not really mention in Ancient Hebrew teachings, but they do exist.


(מ-) Added to verbal stems to form neuter nouns denoting the result of an action, a particular instance of an action, or the object of an action.

אכתב "I write"מכתב "that which is written"
ארא "I see"מראה "that which is seen"
אתן "I give" → מתן "that which is given"
אצבר "I store"מצבר "that which is stored"
אמרתי "I said"מאמר "that which is said"

(ת-) Added to verb stems to form abstract nouns or nouns of action, result or process

ארא "I see"תארה "seeing, the act of sight"
ידעתי "I Knowתעודה "result of investigation, seeking to know, means of know"
אחל "I began"תחלה "begin, source, production, manner of birth, Genesis"
אהלל "I praise"תהלה "rejoicing"
אאהב "i love" תאבה "affection"
נטעתי "I planted" → תבואה "of things planted"
אתן "I give"תודה "giving, contribution"
אוחיל "I hope"תוחלת "hope, expectation"
אלמד "I teach"תלמוד "scholar"

Genesis from γένεσις as this same verbal prefix as the Hebrew converted into a suffix, originally -τις, so when the language shifted between left to right and right to left, the prefixes and suffixes stayed up. תחלה=Genesis and also the governing and dependant substantives switch places whilst the genitival form and function stood put, henceforth the construct. This also why in English we say "He said" rather then "Said He" and the various word order, SOV, OSB, OVS, the result of the Phoenician script they are written in.

γενετις → γενεττγενε → τενε → τελε → תחלה "Genesis"

Saboi

Re: Verbal prefixes

Postby Saboi » Wed Aug 14, 2019 8:20 pm

א-למד → μανθάν-ω "I learn" (fut. μαθησω, aor. ἔμαθον)
ת-למוד → μαθη-τής "Learner, pupil"

אלל → ἀγάλλ-ω "I glorify"
תלה → ἄγαλ-σις "rejoicing""
מלה → ἄγαλ-μα "that which is glorified"

א-וחיל → ἐλπ-ίζ-ω (infix 'י' = denominative verb) cf. אושיע/σώίζω, יושיע/σώσει (σώζω)
תוחלת → ἐλπίς "rejoicing"

א-חנה → ἐλεέ-ω "I Pity"
ת-חנה → ἔλε-ος "pity mercy, compassion"

Most of the verbs in Biblical Hebrew can convert to Greek .

Saboi

Re: Verbal prefixes

Postby Saboi » Wed Aug 14, 2019 10:25 pm

Leviticus 27:30; מעשר → δεκάτευμα "tithes"
Psalm 16:1; מכתם → γράφημα "notes in music, written music"
Proverbs 27:22; מכתש → κοπτήριον "place where grain was beaten out"
2 Kings 10:22; מלבוש → κάλυμμα "head covering, hood, veil, dark veil worn in mourning"
Nahum 3:14; מלבן → πλινθίον "small brick"
Ezekiel 16:3; מכרות → χωρίον "a particular place, passage in a book"
Genesis 11:28; מולדה → βλάστημα "offspring, an offshoot,"
Psalm 78:70; מכלה → αὔλιον "belonging to folds, stables, farmhouse"
1 Samuel 13:20; מחרשה → ἄρατρον "plough"
Psalm 88:18; מחשך → σκοτισμός "darkening"
Numbers 1:47; מטה → φύτευμα "that which is planted"
1 Samuel 19:15; מטה → στρῶμα "anything spread or laid out for lying or sitting upon, mattress, bed"
Genesis 23:9; מערה → ὄρυγμα "excavation, trench, ditch, moat, pit
Genesis 23:9; מכפלה → σπήλαιον "grotto, cavern, cave, den of robbers,
Isaiah 17:1; מפלה → πτῶμα "fall, misfortune, calamity"
1 Kings 15:3; מפלצה → πλάσμα "anything formed, image, figure"
Psalm 46:8; מפעל → ποίημα "anything made"
2 Samuel 24:9; מפקד → τάγμα "fixed assessment or payment, arrangement"
1 Samuel 4:18; מפרקה → φράγμα "fence, breast-work, screen"
Isaiah 1:8; מקשה → σικυών "cucumber bed" (Μηκώνη)
Exodus 37:22; מקשה → σικυώνη "cupping instrument"
Numbers 20:13; מריבה → ἔρισμα "cause of quarrel"
2 Chronicles 21:18; מרפא → θεράπευμα "care of the body"
Numbers 23:7; משלה → ἐπιχείρημα "undertaking, attempt, a demonstrative syllogism"
Psalm 20:5; משאלה → αἴτημα "request, demand"
Last edited by Saboi on Wed Aug 14, 2019 11:53 pm, edited 1 time in total.

Saboi

Re: Verbal prefixes

Postby Saboi » Wed Aug 14, 2019 11:42 pm

Genesis 23:9; מערת המכפלה → ὄρυγμα σπηλαίου

Herodotus 4:17
"The burial-places of the kings are in the land of the Gerrhi, which is the end of the navigation of the Borysthenes. Whenever their king has died, the Scythians dig a great four-cornered pit [ὄρυγμα] in the ground there; when this is ready, they take up the dead man.

Gerrhi (Γέρροισι) → גרר (Genesis 20:1)
Scythian (Σκύθιον) → חתי (Genesis 23:10)
Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης) → ממרא (Genesis 23:17) "Borysthenes, Dniepr"

The biggest goal and dream of historians and archaeologist is to find the city of Gerrhi.

Saboi

Re: Verbal prefixes

Postby Saboi » Thu Aug 15, 2019 12:29 am

Genesis 50:5; My grave which I have digged for me in the land of Canaan
כריתי/ὤρυξα (ὀρύσσω) → מערה/ὄρυγμα

Thus the root of מערה is כרה "dig".

Ezekiel 16:3; מכרתיך ומלדתיך "Thy birth and thy nativity" (χωρίον σου καὶ βλάστημα σου)
The lexicon does not know the given root, it suggest from a word meaning "furnace" (כור/πῦρ), the Gk. is χωρίον "a particular place, a part of history", similar language used in Genesis 11:28, the Sept. here translates אור into χώρᾳ, Job 1:1, ארץ into χώρᾳ, this also ער in Numbers 21:28.

ולד is a rare Hebrew word that begins with a "ו", this interchanges with β and the cognate is βλαστός "offspring, shoot" and
the verb form is βλαστάνω. ותלד/ἔβλαστε.

Saboi

Re: Verbal prefixes

Postby Saboi » Thu Aug 15, 2019 2:08 am

Proverbs 3:33; מארת → κατάραμα "curse"
Psalm 150:5; מחול → χόρευμα "a choral dance"
Genesis 15:1; מחזה → ὄψανον "a vision"
Genesis 45:4; מחיה → ζῷον "living being, in art, figure, image"
1 Kings 10:28; מחיר → ἀγορασμός "purchasing, purchase, auction"
Judges 16:9; מחלף → πλόκαμος "locks, wicker baskets"
Songs 5:16; מחמד → ἐπιθύμημα "object of desire"
Genesis 32:2; מחנה → σκήνημα "camp, dwelling place, nest"
Psalm 14:6; מחסה → ἐπισκιασμός "shading, covering"
Amos 6:6; מזרק → περιρραντήριον "utensil for besprinkling"
Psalm 3:1; מזמור → ὑμνάριον "hymn, ode"
2 Chronicles 4:16; מזלג → ζάγκλον "reaping-hook, sickle"
Daniel 4:12; מזון → θοίναμα "meal, feast"
Genesis 26:25; מזבה → θυσιαστήριον "altar"
Isaiah 41:15; מורג → τρυγάνη "tribula"
Genesis 9:2; מורא → τρόμος "trembling, quaking, quivering (from fear)"
Exodus 23:33; מוקש → δίκτυον "net"
Isaiah 33:14; מוקד → αἴθων "a burning heat, fire"
Exodus 7:3; מופה → φάσμα "apparition, phantom, appearance, phenomenon"
2 Samuel 22:8; מוסדה → κτίσμα "colony, foundation"
Genesis 14:8; מלך → ἄρχων "ruler, chief, King"
Isaiah 30:10; מהתלה → ἀπάτημα "deceit, stratagem"
2 Chronicles 13:22; מדרש → ἐρώτημα "that which is asked, question"
2 Chronicles 1:10; מדע → εἴδημα "knowledge"
2 Samuel 12:31; מגזר → πρίων "saw"
Ezra 6:2; מגלה → κυλίνδριον "roll of a book"
Psalm 119:54; מגור → ἀγυρμός "gathering, crowd"
Numbers 13:19; מבצר → φραγμός "fencing in, blocking up, fortification"
Job 18:14; מבטח → πίστωμα "assurance, warrant, pledge"
Genesis 23:6; מבחר → ἀφαίρεμα "that which is taken away as the choice part"
Isaiah 22:5; מבוסה → πατησμός "treading on"
Genesis 6:17; מבול → πλήσμη, πλήμμυρα "fill, flood-tide"
Leviticus 2:4; מאפה → ὀπτήσιμος "for roasting"
Genesis 6:21; מאכל → φάγημα "food, victuals'
Jeremiah 50:26; מאבוס → φάτνωμα "offered work, projecting platform"

Saboi

Re: Verbal prefixes

Postby Saboi » Thu Aug 15, 2019 5:02 am

Isaiah 28:29; תושיה → σοφιστής "master of one's craft, adept, expert"
2 Kings 2:8; תחנת → σκηνίτης dweller in tents or booths, of nomad tribes
1 Kings 11:19; תחפניס → δαφνίς "bayberry"
Isaiah 59:17; תלבשת → κάλυψις "covering"
Exodus 16:12; תלונה → ἔγκλησις "accusation"
Hosea 12:14; תמרור → πικρότης "pungency, of taste, bitterness"
Lamentations 4:9; תנובה → φύτευσις "fruits"
Psalm 94:19; תנחוה → παράκλησις "calling to one's aid"
1 Kings 18:34; תעלה → κατακλείς "locks on a canal"
Joshua 12:21; תענך → δαφνιακός "belonging to the bay"
Psalm 68:35; תעצמה → δημόσιος "belonging to the people"
Songs 2:3; תפוח → ἄπιος "pear"
1 Kings 8:38; תפלה → ἀντιβόλησις "prayer"
Jeremiah 49:16; תפלצה → πλάσις "moulding, conformation"
1 Kings 4:24; תפסה → πήδησις "leaping"
2 Kings 23:10; תפת → ὄπτησις "roasting, baking of"
Job 5:16; תקוה → προσδοκίας "looking for, expectation"
Numbers 32:13; תרבות → κάρπωσις "offering offruits, use, profit"
Exodus 25:2; תרומה→ αἵρεσις "taking, choice"
Numbers 10:5; תרועה → σύριγξις "playing on the syrinx"
Joshua 6:20; תרועה → κρότησις "clapping, striking (as a sign of relief)
Genesis 11:24; תרח → χωρίτης "countryman, inhabitant of a country town"
Ezekiel 27:5; תרן → δόρυ "of timber, esp. for ships"
Exodus 28:4; תשבץ → ποίκιλσις "embroidery"
Leviticus 6:2; תשומת → κατάθεσις "paying down, payment"
Genesis 5:5; תשעεις ἀπό δέκα "one from ten" (εν-ἄπο-έκα > εν-ν-έα > ennéa )

Saboi

Re: Verbal prefixes

Postby Saboi » Fri Aug 16, 2019 7:56 am

(Participle)
Psalm 17:7 - מושיע→ σῴζων
Hosea 13:4 - מושיע→ σῴζων
Judges 12:3 - מושיע→ σῴζων
1 Samuel 11:3 - מושיע→ σῴζων

The stem is just וש (σῴ), for σῴζων was originally σωΐζων. מ־וש־יע/σω-ΐζ-ων.
וש/σω (vowel-consonant metathesis).

Root. שלו > sălūs, salvus, safe, calm.

Saboi

Re: Verbal prefixes

Postby Saboi » Fri Aug 16, 2019 10:32 am

Genesis 29:15 - משכרה → μίσθωμα "price agreed on in hiring, contract-price"
Genesis 30:28 - שכר → μισθός "pay, allowance"

Jeremiah 3:11
משבה → στρέμμα "that which is twisted, conspiracy, band of conspirators"
מבגדה → ἀθέτημα "breach of faith, transgression, cancellation, annulment of grant"

Deuteronomy 15:2
משה → δάνεισμα "a loan"

Deuteronomy 15:2
מרצע → χάραγμα "any mark engraved, imprinted, or branded, the serpent's mark, brand on a camel"

Genesis 47:4
מרעה → φρούρημα "that which is watched or guarded"

Genesis 46:29
מרכבה → πορευμα "carriage"

Ecclesiastics 9:11
מרוץ → τρόχιμος "running, hasting"

Proverbs 28:6
מרגמה → ἀραγμός "crashing shower of stones, beating of the breast in grief,"

Proverbs 7:16
מרבד → ῥάμμα "anything sewn or stitched, seam, hem" (ῥαπτός_

Judges 4:21
מקבה → σκάμμα "that which has been dug, action of digging" (σκαπτός)

Jeremiah 10:4
מקבה → κόπανος "chopper, cleaver"

Exodus 29:6
מצנפה → στεφάνωμα "crown, wreath, plants used for making garland"

Genesis 26:5
מצוה → θέσμιον "laws, customs, rites, agreements"

Saboi

Re: Verbal prefixes

Postby Saboi » Fri Aug 16, 2019 1:45 pm

Proverbs 3:5; בינת → πινυτή "understanding, wisdom"
Proverbs 10:32; תבונה → πινυτός "prudent, discreet"

Job 18:14; מבטח → πίστωμα "assurance, warrant, pledge"

(Present/Future)
אבטח → πιστεύω
תבטח → πιστεύεις
יבטח → πιστεύει

(Aorist)
ואבטחπίστευσα
ותבטחπίστευσας
ויבטחπίστευε

(Perfect)
בטחתי → πιστευκα
בטחת → πιστευκας
בטח → πιστευκε


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