The act שכב $AKAB in Lev. 15

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Isaac Fried
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The act שכב $AKAB in Lev. 15

Postby Isaac Fried » Tue Apr 08, 2014 8:28 pm

The Hebrew verb is not a sequence of events but rather the image of the final material state of the body acted upon. In light of this, the act שכב $AKAB, 'lie', does not refer to a process of reclining down, but to the actual state of being elevated on top of the bed.

The act שכב $AKAB is thus an obvious variant of the act שגב $AGAB, 'to be high, to be lofty, to be exalted', as is the חומה נשגבה 'lofty wall', of Isaiah 30:13.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Saro Fedele
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Re: The act שכב $AKAB in Lev. 15

Postby Saro Fedele » Tue Feb 04, 2020 9:47 am

I think - instead - we may connect שכב with the allomorphic variant root כשב (Gen 1:18, first occurrence), through a consonantal permutation 231, where the basic sense of to incline, to bow down, to recline is always present. Maybe, the common Latin prefix sub- was derived from this root (consider that it's not without reason that the Jerome's Vulgate has subicite in Gen 1:28 mentioned above...).

Also the Akkadian language confirms this conclusion. For some examples, we find GABASU/KABASU/KAPASU, ‘to step upon something on purpose, to trample, to make someone to work’ > ‘to crash, defeat an enemy’ [Old Akkadian, CAD VIII:5-11]; but also ‘to bend over, to droop’ [(Old Assyrian/Babylonian), CAD VIII:181ss]. I mention here also SAKAPU, ‘to lie down, lie still, rest’ [(Old Babylonian), CAD XV:74].

Isaac Fried
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Re: The act שכב $AKAB in Lev. 15

Postby Isaac Fried » Tue Feb 04, 2020 8:04 pm

Saro says
I mention here also SAKAPU, ‘to lie down, lie still, rest’

Saro, you are right, but still, שוכֵב על המיטה means resting upon (up-on) the bed, on top of the bed; being in the state of שוגֵב על המיטה.
The SAKAPU that you mention seems to correspond to the Hebrew זקף, 'straiten up', in Ps. 145:14
סוֹמֵךְ יהוה לְכָל הַנֹּפְלִים וְזוֹקֵף לְכָל הַכְּפוּפִים
NIV: "The Lord upholds all who fall and lifts up all who are bowed down"
KJV: "The Lord upholdeth all that fall, and raiseth up all those that be bowed down"
Closely related to זקף is שקף, 'to lift oneself to better see', as in Ps. 102:20(19)
כִּי הִשְׁקִיף מִמְּרוֹם קָדְשׁוֹ יהוה מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶל אֶרֶץ הִבִּיט
NIV: "The Lord looked down from his sanctuary on high, from heaven he viewed the earth"
KJV: "For he hath looked down from the height of his sanctuary; from heaven did the Lord behold the earth"
From this root we have also the מַשְקוֹף = מה-שק-הוּא-ף, 'door header', of Ex. 12:7
עַל שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וְעַל הַמַּשְׁקוֹף
KJV: "on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses"
NIV: "on the sides and tops of the doorframes of the houses"
Notice that הַכְּפוּפִים, 'the bent down', of 145:14 is practically הגבוּבים, 'the piled up', since bending down is pushing up the back.
I repeat: The way I see it, the Hebrew verb (act) is not a video movie, but only a strict still picture of the ensuing final state of the body acted upon. The movie we create in our mind is experience fed; to wit, אני שוכב לישון does not contain the part on putting on the pajamas.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Isaac Fried
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Re: The act שכב $AKAB in Lev. 15

Postby Isaac Fried » Sat Feb 08, 2020 7:02 pm

Having brought up here the act שקף and הִשְקִיף = היא-שק-היא-ף, 'viewed, looked out, observed', we recall also the interesting act שגח (so near סכך, שחח, שכך, שכח), 'supervised, watched, observed, oversaw, noticed, kept an eye upon, laid an eye upon', as in Ps. 33:13-14
מִשָּׁמַיִם הִבִּיט יהוה רָאָה אֶת כָּל בְּנֵי הָאָדָם מִמְּכוֹן שִׁבְתּוֹ הִשְׁגִּיחַ אֶל כָּל יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ
KJV: "The Lord looketh from heaven; he beholdeth all the sons of men. From the place of his habitation he looketh upon all the inhabitants of the earth"
NIV: "From heaven the Lord looks down and sees all mankind; from his dwelling place he watches all who live on earth"

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Isaac Fried
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Re: The act שכב $AKAB in Lev. 15

Postby Isaac Fried » Sun Feb 09, 2020 2:45 pm

Saro says
where the basic sense of to incline, to bow down, to recline is always present. Maybe, the common Latin prefix sub- was derived from this root

It is an interesting idea, but sub- is 'under', yet sup- as in super, is 'over'; it is but a question of outlook, from above or from below.
Take from example the Hebrew act נפל, 'fall', which essentially means to be on, say the top of the floor, by the presence of the letter ל L in it, as in Gen. 43:18
לְהִתְגֹּלֵל עָלֵינוּ וּלְהִתְנַפֵּל עָלֵינוּ
NIV: "He wants to attack us and overpower us"
Notice also that the נָפִיל of Gen. 6:4
הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ, בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם
KJV: "here were giants in the earth in those days"
is considered to be a giant, not someone shriveled נָפוּל, נָבוּל.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Isaac Fried
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Re: The act שכב $AKAB in Lev. 15

Postby Isaac Fried » Wed Feb 12, 2020 7:13 pm

Saro says
we find GABASU/KABASU/KAPASU, ‘to step upon something on purpose, to trample, to make someone to work’ > ‘to crash, defeat an enemy’

Indeed, כבש is a member of the root family
גבש, חבש, כבס, כבש, חפץ, קבץ, קפץ
meaning 'hold tight together'.
From גבש we have the גָבִיש = גב-היא-ש, 'crystal', of Job 28:18
רָאמוֹת וְגָבִישׁ לֹא יִזָּכֵר וּמֶשֶׁךְ חָכְמָה מִפְּנִינִים
NIV: "Coral and jasper are not worthy of mention; the price of wisdom is beyond rubies"
In spoken Hebrew גִּיבּוּש is, 'bonding, consolidation'.
כֶּבֶשׂ is a full bodied goat.
In spoken Hebrew כְּבִיסָה = כב-היא-ס-היא is 'laundry, wash'.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Isaac Fried
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Re: The act שכב $AKAB in Lev. 15

Postby Isaac Fried » Wed Feb 12, 2020 8:03 pm

Ah, moreover, in spoken Hebrew כְּבִיש = כב-היא-ש is 'pressed-down asphalt road, highway', while כּרוּב כָּבוּש is 'sauerkraut'.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Isaac Fried
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Re: The act שכב $AKAB in Lev. 15

Postby Isaac Fried » Thu Feb 13, 2020 4:53 pm

The kindred root חבש, 'bind, wrap, tie around, fix firmly', is found in Jonah 2:6(5)
אֲפָפוּנִי מַיִם עַד נֶפֶשׁ תְּהוֹם יְסֹבְבֵנִי סוּף חָבוּשׁ לְרֹאשִׁי
KJV: "The waters compassed me about, even to the soul: the depth closed me round about, the weeds were wrapped about my head"
NIV: "The engulfing waters threatened me, the deep surrounded me; seaweed was wrapped around my head"
In spoken Hebrew תַּחְבּוֹשֶׁת = אתה-חב-הוּא-ש-את is 'bandage', while חוֹבֵשׁ = ח-הוּא-בש is 'medic, paramedic, first-aid man'.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Isaac Fried
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Re: The act שכב $AKAB in Lev. 15

Postby Isaac Fried » Sat Feb 15, 2020 9:12 pm

And not to forget the related root סחף (so close to סחב), 'sweep', as in Proverbs 28:3
מָטָר סֹחֵף וְאֵין לָחֶם
NIV: :a driving rain that leaves no crops"
KJV: "a sweeping rain which leaveth no food"
in spoken Hebrew סַחַף is 'erosion, sediment, alluvium'.

Isaac Fried, Boston University


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