חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

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Isaac Fried
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חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

Postby Isaac Fried » Wed Mar 20, 2019 10:06 pm

In Lev. 11:7 we read
וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר כִּי מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא וְשֹׁסַע שֶׁסַע פַּרְסָה וְהוּא גֵּרָה לֹא יִגָּר טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם
The animal name חז-היא-ר = חֲזִיר is from the root חזר, a member of the Hebrew root family
גדר גזר גשר
הדר
חדר חזר חטר חסר חצר חשר חתר
כדר כשר כתר
קדר קטר קצר קשר

Leading me to think that חזיר is a חטיר, the animal of the two sharp tusks, namely, חֳטָרִים or חטים. See Isaiah 11:1
וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה
NIV: "A shoot will come up from the stump of Jesse; from his roots a Branch will bear fruit"
In post-biblical Hebrew חֲזֶרֶת XAZERET, is 'horseradish', the sharp white חֹטֶר growing into the ground similarly to the גֶזֶר GEZER, carrot.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Isaac Fried
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Joined: Sat Sep 28, 2013 8:32 pm

Re: חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

Postby Isaac Fried » Thu Mar 21, 2019 11:41 am

חט XAT, 'tusk, canine tooth' is related to חד XAD, 'sharp' (see Isaiah 49:2). Also to חוּט XUT (hence מחט - מה-חט, 'needle'), 'line, string' (see Jos. 2:12), and also to חִטָּה XITAH, 'wheat'.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Isaac Fried
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Re: חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

Postby Isaac Fried » Sat Mar 23, 2019 9:41 pm

Possibly, similarly is the name צְפִיר CPIYR, 'goat', (see Daniel 8:1-8) for the צפירה , or the צבירה, 'accumulation', upon his head. See Isaiah 28:4-5
וְהָיְתָה צִיצַת נֹבֵל צְבִי תִפְאַרְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עַל רֹאשׁ גֵּיא שְׁמָנִים כְּבִכּוּרָהּ בְּטֶרֶם קַיִץ אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה הָרֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ בְּעוֹדָהּ בְּכַפּוֹ יִבְלָעֶנָּה. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה יהוה צְבָאוֹת לַעֲטֶרֶת צְבִי וְלִצְפִירַת תִּפְאָרָה לִשְׁאָר עַמּוֹ
KJV: "And the glorious beauty, which is on the head of the fat valley, shall be a fading flower, and as the hasty fruit before the summer; which when he that looketh upon it seeth, while it is yet in his hand he eateth it up. In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory, and for a diadem of beauty, unto the residue of his people"

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Isaac Fried
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Re: חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

Postby Isaac Fried » Mon Mar 25, 2019 12:21 pm

Consider also the beast called זֶמֶר ZEMER in Deut. 14:5, possibly so named because of its horns rising like זמוֹרוֹת ZMOROT, 'branches'; but nothing to do with זִמְרָה ZIMRAH, 'singing'.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Mark Lightman
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Re: חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

Postby Mark Lightman » Thu Mar 28, 2019 6:43 pm

Isaac Fried wrote: An attempted etymology...

Perhaps surprisingly, Gesenius, who is my third favorite Hebrew etymologist (behind you and Lee Mcgee) does NOT connect the word with χοῖρος.
Mark Lightman

Saboi
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Re: חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

Postby Saboi » Thu Mar 28, 2019 8:08 pm

In 1 Chronicles 24:15, the name חזיר is transliterated Χηζιρ, compare with Χοιρ.

The word χοῖρος is synonymous with σῦς, ῦς ' swine' ( סיס)
- Jeremiah 8:7 as סיס ועגו (σῦς ἀγροῦ) "wild swine". יער/ἀγρός.

The Homeric word for a wild swine is σῦς κάπριος (ἄγριος)/

Perhaps חזיר is a compound of σῦς (חז) and ἀγρός (יר)
Lee Mcgee

Isaac Fried
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Re: חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

Postby Isaac Fried » Thu Mar 28, 2019 10:37 pm

Gesenius does not connect the Hebrew word חזיר with the Greek word χοῖρος since Hebrew does not have an external etymology, only internal.
It is interesting that he (Gesenius) prefers to derive the beast name גמל GAMAL, 'camel', from the arabic حمل XAMAL, 'to carry', an etymology which I reject as awkward and implausible. A גמל is not a סַבָּל SABAL, a גמל is just a GAMAL: stately, massive and tall, על AL.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

Saboi
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Re: חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

Postby Saboi » Fri Mar 29, 2019 12:51 pm

The animal in Deuteronomy 14:5 is a Giraffe, the Septuagint reads זמר as καμηλοπάρδαλις [Camel-leopards].

Strabo, Geography 16.17
Camel-leopards are bred in these parts, but they do not in any respect resemble leopards, for their variegated skin is more like the streaked and spotted skin of fallow deer. The hinder quarters are so very much lower than the fore quarters, that it seems as if the animal sat upon its rump, which is the height of an ox; the fore legs are as long as those of the camel. The neck rises high and straight up, but the head greatly exceeds in height that of the camel. From this want of proportion, the speed of the animal is not so great, I think, as it is described by Artemidorus, according to whom it is not to be surpassed. It is not however a wild animal, but rather like a domesticated beast; for it shows no signs of a savage disposition


The first component of καμηλοπάρδαλις is κάμηλος/גמל and the second component πάρδαλις emphases the animals spots
and the word for Spot in Ancient Hebrew is ברד, the word for Leopard is נמרד however the Septuagint suggests the pronunciation as Νεβρωδ (Nebrod) since ב and מ interchange as labials. cf. אבנה/אמנה see 2 Kings 5:12.

זבר < גבר < גברד < גמברד < גמלברד (Spotted Camel)

κάμηλ/גמל is a compound, because μηλ means Sheep, this is רחל and κά/ג is μέγᾶ/גדל

גמל < גמחל < גרחל < גדל רחל (Big Sheep)
Lee Mcgee

Saboi
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Re: חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

Postby Saboi » Fri Mar 29, 2019 12:58 pm

The animal in Deuteronomy 14:5 is a Giraffe, the Septuagint reads זמר as καμηλοπάρδαλις [Camel-leopards].

Strabo, Geography 16.17
Camel-leopards are bred in these parts, but they do not in any respect resemble leopards, for their variegated skin is more like the streaked and spotted skin of fallow deer. The hinder quarters are so very much lower than the fore quarters, that it seems as if the animal sat upon its rump, which is the height of an ox; the fore legs are as long as those of the camel. The neck rises high and straight up, but the head greatly exceeds in height that of the camel. From this want of proportion, the speed of the animal is not so great, I think, as it is described by Artemidorus, according to whom it is not to be surpassed. It is not however a wild animal, but rather like a domesticated beast; for it shows no signs of a savage disposition


The first component of καμηλοπάρδαλις is κάμηλος/גמל and the second component πάρδαλις emphases the animals spots
and the word for Spot in Ancient Hebrew is ברד, the word for Leopard is נמרד however the Septuagint suggests the pronunciation as Νεβρωδ (Nebrod) since ב and מ interchange as labials. cf. אבנה/אמנה see 2 Kings 5:12.

זבר < גבר < גברד < גמברד < גמלברד (Spotted Camel)

κάμηλ/גמל is a compound, because μηλ means Sheep, this is רחל and κά/ג is μέγᾶ/גדל

גמל < גמחל < גרחל < גדל רחל (Big Sheep)

καμηλοπάρδαλις = גדל רחל ברד ליש
Lee Mcgee

Isaac Fried
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Re: חזיר, 'boar, hog, pig, swine'. An attempted etymology

Postby Isaac Fried » Fri Mar 29, 2019 1:31 pm

In my opinion the animal name צָב CAB of Lev. 11:29 arises from the root צבה CBH, 'large, swollen', (related to צבא and יצב). For my own edification I look up Gesenius and see that he is saying for the CAB: "so called from its slow motion". Is the צבי - צב-היא CBIY also slow, or rather of a full body?

Isaac Fried, Boston University


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