Tiphel verbs

Classical Hebrew morphology and syntax, aspect, linguistics, discourse analysis, and related topics
Forum rules
Members will observe the rules for respectful discourse at all times!
Please sign all posts with your first and last (family) name.
Kenneth Greifer
Posts: 434
Joined: Mon Feb 09, 2015 3:05 pm
Contact:

Tiphel verbs

Post by Kenneth Greifer »

I read in a dictionary that there is a verb form called tiphel. It was about the verb תרגל used in Hosea 11:3. Are there other examples of this verb form?

"And I, I taught Ephraim to walk, Taking them by their arms; But they knew not that I healed them."
Hosea 11:3 הושע
11:3וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל־זְרוֹעֹתָיו וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי רְפָאתִים׃
Kenneth Greifer
kwrandolph
Posts: 1235
Joined: Sun Sep 29, 2013 12:51 am

Re: Tiphel verbs

Post by kwrandolph »

Kenneth Greifer wrote: Wed Jan 20, 2021 12:17 am I read in a dictionary that there is a verb form called tiphel. It was about the verb תרגל used in Hosea 11:3. Are there other examples of this verb form?

"And I, I taught Ephraim to walk, Taking them by their arms; But they knew not that I healed them."
Hosea 11:3 הושע
11:3וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל־זְרוֹעֹתָיו וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי רְפָאתִים׃
Are you sure that תרגלה is not a noun? And if a noun, what is its meaning?

There are nouns that when derived from verbs start with a tau. Is this one of them?

Karl W. Randolph.
User avatar
Jason Hare
Posts: 1185
Joined: Mon Sep 30, 2013 5:07 am
Location: Tel Aviv, Israel
Contact:

Re: Tiphel verbs

Post by Jason Hare »

This is a type of piel that is built on four letters rather than three. It's similar in structure to the pilpel. You might look also at אִפְעֵל and שִׁפְעֵל. All three of the letters are added to roots to create new nuance to the root. This happens quite a bit in the modern language, as in אִתְחֵל "he restarted, rebooted," שִׁכְפֵּל "he duplicated," and תִּדְלֵק "he gassed up."

HALOT has:
tifʿel (Gesenius-K. 55h; Joüon Gramm. §59e; KBL supplement 185), however the existence of a tifʿel (with the same meaning as hif.) is uncertain, see e.g. Barth Nominalbildung p. 2792; Bergsträsser 2: §20b; R. Meyer Gramm. §72:1c: pf. תִּרְגַּלְתִּי Hos 11:3; to teach the way (KBL), spoon-feed (? textual error for an original הִרְגַּלְתִּי, see in Wolff BK 14/12:247; NRSV, REB: it was I who taught Ephraim to walk.
Gesenius really does address both tip̄ʿēl and šip̄ʿēl in 55h, pulling up the word תִּרְגֵּם "he translated" (from Aramaic) and the use of this root in Ezra 4:7. Also, the root לה״ב takes on the shin prefix in the noun שַׁלְהֶ֫בֶת. I'd recommend getting in Gesenius on this question before branching out to other explanations.
Jason Hare
Tel Aviv, Israel
www.thehebrewcafe.com
Nihil est peius iis, qui paulum aliquid ultra primas litteras
progressi falsam sibi scientiæ persusionem induerunt.

— Quintilian
User avatar
Jason Hare
Posts: 1185
Joined: Mon Sep 30, 2013 5:07 am
Location: Tel Aviv, Israel
Contact:

Re: Tiphel verbs

Post by Jason Hare »

This is what Joüon-Muraoka mention with regard to this verse and question:
5) Furthermore one finds some isolated forms which are probably denominative, e.g. תְּתַחֲרֶה you become excited, argue Jr 12.5 is a denominative of תַּחֲרָה*, which appears in Sir 31.29; 40.5; תִּרְגַּ֫לְתִּי I led the way Ho 11.3, from תִּרְגֵּל, a denominative of רֶ֫גֶל.
Jason Hare
Tel Aviv, Israel
www.thehebrewcafe.com
Nihil est peius iis, qui paulum aliquid ultra primas litteras
progressi falsam sibi scientiæ persusionem induerunt.

— Quintilian
User avatar
Jason Hare
Posts: 1185
Joined: Mon Sep 30, 2013 5:07 am
Location: Tel Aviv, Israel
Contact:

Re: Tiphel verbs

Post by Jason Hare »

kwrandolph wrote: Wed Jan 20, 2021 7:36 pm
Kenneth Greifer wrote: Wed Jan 20, 2021 12:17 am I read in a dictionary that there is a verb form called tiphel. It was about the verb תרגל used in Hosea 11:3. Are there other examples of this verb form?

"And I, I taught Ephraim to walk, Taking them by their arms; But they knew not that I healed them."
Hosea 11:3 הושע
11:3וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל־זְרוֹעֹתָיו וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי רְפָאתִים׃
Are you sure that תרגלה is not a noun? And if a noun, what is its meaning?

There are nouns that when derived from verbs start with a tau. Is this one of them?

Karl W. Randolph.
Would you offer a translation?
Jason Hare
Tel Aviv, Israel
www.thehebrewcafe.com
Nihil est peius iis, qui paulum aliquid ultra primas litteras
progressi falsam sibi scientiæ persusionem induerunt.

— Quintilian
kwrandolph
Posts: 1235
Joined: Sun Sep 29, 2013 12:51 am

Re: Tiphel verbs

Post by kwrandolph »

Jason Hare wrote: Thu Jan 21, 2021 8:47 am
kwrandolph wrote: Wed Jan 20, 2021 7:36 pm
Kenneth Greifer wrote: Wed Jan 20, 2021 12:17 am I read in a dictionary that there is a verb form called tiphel. It was about the verb תרגל used in Hosea 11:3. Are there other examples of this verb form?

"And I, I taught Ephraim to walk, Taking them by their arms; But they knew not that I healed them."
Hosea 11:3 הושע
11:3וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל־זְרוֹעֹתָיו וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי רְפָאתִים׃
Are you sure that תרגלה is not a noun? And if a noun, what is its meaning?

There are nouns that when derived from verbs start with a tau. Is this one of them?

Karl W. Randolph.
Would you offer a translation?
Here I’m guessing myself, but while the tipael verb form sounds sort of flakey, there is a clear pattern of noun derivations from verbs done by the addition of a ת prefix onto the verb. Examples include:

‎תאוה generalized desiring ⇒ that which is desired ← אוה
‎תאלת curse ?? La 3:65 αλ ← אלה
‎תאן distress Is 29:2 Ez 24:12 La 2:5 ← אנה
‎תאנה occasion for an unpleasant experience, not a chance occurrence Jd 14:4, Jr 2:24 ← אנה
‎תבוא arrival, coming in Jb 6:8 ← בוא
‎תבואה yield, in the sense of produce of the field, vineyard Gn 47:24, Is 30:23, 2C 32:28 ← בוא
‎תבונה practical insight leading to action, such as making things ⇒ skill Ex 31:3, 35:31, Pr 24:3 ← בון
‎תבוסת kicking aside ⇒ rejection 2C 22:7 αλ ← בוס

and many, many more.

Because this is a αλ usage, that leaves us somewhat unsure as to its meaning. Seeing as it’s from the root ‎רגל to scout (out), spy with the main emphasis on bringing a report for the purpose of overthrowing what is spied on Nu 21:32, Js 6:25, 2S 10:3, 19:28, is this some sort of reference to God’s searching out for Ephraim, taking them by the arms yet they don’t know that God is the one who heals them?

Do you see why writing a dictionary from Biblical Hebrew to modern English is so difficult? There’s so much uncertainty unless one is a hack like Gesenius who mostly just took from others before him.

Karl W. Randolph.
User avatar
Jason Hare
Posts: 1185
Joined: Mon Sep 30, 2013 5:07 am
Location: Tel Aviv, Israel
Contact:

Re: Tiphel verbs

Post by Jason Hare »

Just to get a grasp of what you're saying, what does "αλ ←" mean?
Jason Hare
Tel Aviv, Israel
www.thehebrewcafe.com
Nihil est peius iis, qui paulum aliquid ultra primas litteras
progressi falsam sibi scientiæ persusionem induerunt.

— Quintilian
talmid56
Posts: 178
Joined: Tue Oct 01, 2013 9:02 am
Location: Carlisle, Arkansas, USA

Re: Tiphel verbs

Post by talmid56 »

I'm guessing "hapax legomenon". (Edit: wrongly gave singular form of verb λέγω at first.)
Last edited by talmid56 on Wed Jan 27, 2021 1:30 pm, edited 1 time in total.
Dewayne Dulaney
דואיין דוליני

Blog: https://letancientvoicesspeak.wordpress.com/

כִּ֤י שֶׁ֨מֶשׁ׀ וּמָגֵן֮ יְהוָ֪ה אֱלֹ֫הִ֥ים חֵ֣ן וְ֭כָבוֹד יִתֵּ֣ן יְהוָ֑ה לֹ֥א יִמְנַע־ט֝֗וֹב לַֽהֹלְכִ֥ים בְּתָמִֽים׃
--(E 84:11) 84:12 תהלים
User avatar
Jason Hare
Posts: 1185
Joined: Mon Sep 30, 2013 5:07 am
Location: Tel Aviv, Israel
Contact:

Re: Tiphel verbs

Post by Jason Hare »

talmid56 wrote: Tue Jan 26, 2021 4:44 pm I'm guessing "hapax legomena".
That's for sure. Whether it is tiphel or hiphil, it is hapax legomenon for this root.
Jason Hare
Tel Aviv, Israel
www.thehebrewcafe.com
Nihil est peius iis, qui paulum aliquid ultra primas litteras
progressi falsam sibi scientiæ persusionem induerunt.

— Quintilian
kwrandolph
Posts: 1235
Joined: Sun Sep 29, 2013 12:51 am

Re: Tiphel verbs

Post by kwrandolph »

Jason Hare wrote: Tue Jan 26, 2021 1:18 pm Just to get a grasp of what you're saying, what does "αλ ←" mean?
Those are the first letters of two Greek words απαξ λεγομενον referring to words used only once in the Bible.

The arrow ← indicates that the listed word is a derivative of the verb that follows the arrow. As you may have noticed, not all nouns and adjectives have that arrow nor a verb.

Karl W. Randolph.
Post Reply